However, in Egypt the newly crowned Pharaoh recorded the actual year he came to the throne as "year 1" of his reign even though it was a partial year.
This system of dating a reign is called the "non-accession-year" system, or "ante-dating." The kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel adopted the Egyptian system of dating a king's reign.
But as fighting rages to evict the Islamic State (IS) group from the main city in northern Iraq, it will be a race against time to save the archaeological treasures uncovered in the tunnels.
The jihadists dug the network of tunnels to plunder artefacts under a hill reputedly housing the tomb of the Prophet Jonah, the Nabi Yunus shrine which they dynamited in July 2014."We fear it could all collapse at any time," entombing the treasures, said Layla Salih who is in charge of antiquities for Nineveh province."There are cave-ins in the tunnels every day."Iraqi authorities discovered the underground labyrinth, from which IS plundered to sell on the black market, after they recaptured east Mosul at the end of January.
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Texts commented on by Mesopotamian scholars include literary works, rituals and incantations, medical treatises, lexical lists, laws, and, most importantly, omen texts.
She said IS had not been able to extract many of the treasures for fear of the hill collapsing altogether but other removable artifacts, especially pottery, were certainly plundered.
It is feared that practically all the pieces have been destroyed, which, if true, represents a tragic loss for future generations of visitors to the Mosul Museum.
Fortunately most of the small objects in the collection of Mosul Museum had been removed to Baghdad for safekeeping before the Second Gulf War, but a number of stone sculptures, impractical to move, remained in the exhibition galleries. The video footage included harrowing images of thugs wielding sledgehammers and throwing statues to the floor.
Those that did not shatter on impact were speedily broken up with the hammers.
The same video shows fanatics attacking Assyrian human-headed winged bulls in the Nergal Gate at Nineveh.
DATING THE REIGNS OF THE KINGS OF JUDAH AND ISRAEL Documents Old Testament Documents The annals of the Assyrian Empire discovered by archaeologists record 12 years between the reigns of King Ahab of Israel and King Jehu of Israel.In Mosul itself, many famous mosques and shrines have been obliterated, apparently on the grounds that they commemorate saints and other notable figures, which is anathema to the fundamentalist interpretation of Sunni Islam espoused by Isis, and there has been vandalism of libraries.